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Proceedings of Past Forest Nursery Association Meetings:

Stock quality assessment: Still an important component of operational reforestation programs
Raymund S. Folk and Steven C. Grossnickle
1997: Boise, ID
As early as 1954, the need to grade seedlings for morphological and physiological quality was recognized (Wakeley 1954). Over the last 50 years, and especially during the 80’s and early 90’s, scientists and foresters studied ways to produce better seedlings through improved nursery culture, and developed tests to assess seedling quality. This interest in seedling quality led to numerous reviews (Sutton 1979; Chavasse 1980; Jaramillo 1980; Timmis 1980; Schmidt-Vogt 1981; Ritchie 1984; Glerum 1988; Lavender 1988; Puttonen 1989; Hawkins and Binder 1990; Johnson and Cline 1991; Omi 1991; Grossnickle and Folk 1993; and Folk and Grossnickle 1997), several publications (Duryea and Brown 1984; Duryea 1985; Rose et. al. 1990), as well as special issues of periodicals (New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 1980, Vol. 10, no. 1, and recently New Forests, 1997, Vol. 13, no. 1-3). As a result, nursery cultural practices and field-planted seedling have survival has improved. In British Columbia, average survival for container stock is greater than 80% (Bowden 1993).

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