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Proceedings of Past Forest Nursery Association Meetings:

Alternatives to Chemical Fumigation Technology Development Project: Preliminary Results
Diane M. Hildebrand,Jeffrey K. Stone , Robert L. James, Susan J. Frankel, Jill D. Pokorny, Joseph G. O'Brien , and Michelle M. Cram
1995: Kearney, NE
Preliminary results indicate that each nursery requires different soil management regimes to help reduce the need for chemical fumigation. Several treatments contributed to production of seedlings with densities and morphology similar to or better than with chemical fumigation. Beneficial cultural practices included 1) Incorporation of slowly decomposing organic soil amendments, for example, aged sawdust with additional nitrogen provided to seedlings; 2) Bare fallowing, with and without periodic tilling, and with weed control; 3) Sowing of conifer seed early and shallow, and covering seed with a non-soil mulch such as aged sawdust or hydromulch.
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